Episcopalian religious objects

American Indian-made Episcopal religious pieces belonging to Bishop Whipple indicate an acceptance of Indian perspectives, and a blending of religious belief systems.  Part of Whipple's conversion strategies included encouraging American Indian lay ministers to preach in their own languages and to translate the bible into Dakota and Ojibwe texts.  These devotional pieces reflect  "western" forms but are constructed of materials usually associated with American Indian material culture such as deer hide, glass beads, porcupine quill, and pipestone.